Crisis intervention therapy aims to intervene as quickly as possible after the traumatic event occurred. The goals are to help the client clarify the event, minimize the use of destructive coping skills, and create productive coping techniques.
This therapy involves the therapist teaching the survivor about the impact of trauma, common disorders associated with trauma, and ways to cope with symptoms.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)
Cognitive behavioral theory stems from the idea that people are characterized by how they think about the world, and that the way they think and interpret events leads to emotional responses. The goal of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) counseling is to teach the client to identify and change irrational or dysfunctional thoughts that are causing negative emotions and reactions.
Psychoanalytic therapy aims to uncover unconscious thoughts, emotions, and behaviors. Psychodynamic theory also focuses on uncovering repressed thoughts and emotions while focusing on the dynamics of the client’s family.
Client centered therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, is focused on the therapist establishing a warm, safe environment for the client, and providing genuine empathy. The therapist normally does not give advice.
Narrative therapy centers on the idea that people are the experts in their own lives and views problems as separate from people. Narrative approaches assume that people have many skills, competencies, beliefs, values, commitments, and abilities that will assist them to reduce the influence of problems in their lives.
Mindfulness is the intentional, accepting and non‐judgmental focus of one’s attention on the emotions, thoughts and sensations occurring in the present moment. It has recently been popularized in the West and is an attribute of consciousness long believed to promote well‐being.
Substance abuse therapy involves addressing the use of a substance such as alcohol or drugs as a coping method. The goal is to work through the addiction and develop more adaptive coping methods. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and 12‐step programs are the most common approaches.
Motivational Enhancement Therapy (MET)
Motivational Enhancement Therapy (MET) is a counseling approach that helps individuals to resolve their ambivalence about engaging in treatment and stopping their drug use. This approach aims to evoke rapid and internally motivated change, rather than guide the patient step-wise through the recovery process.
Creative therapy involves using art, dance, and drama, to promote self‐awareness, express trauma, aid communication, and facilitate change. These techniques are often used in survivors who have difficulty verbalizing their emotions.
Holistic Medicine is a form of healing that considers the whole person ‐‐ body, mind, spirit, and emotions ‐‐ in the quest for optimal health and wellness. According to the holistic medicine philosophy, one can achieve optimal health ‐‐ the primary goal of holistic medicine practice ‐‐ by gaining proper balance in life.
Somatic therapy a holistically orientated therapy that works to address the “bodily” memory of trauma by helping the client recognize where they are carrying physical tension.
Solution focused therapy seeks to establish goals and solutions to a client’s problem that utilize the client’s strengths. The client sets their own goals and is aided by the therapist through psycho education and interactive counseling.
Play Therapy is a technique used in child psychotherapy in which play is used to reveal unconscious thoughts and feelings. Play is the natural way in which children express and work through unconscious conflicts, thus allowing them to experiment with new ways of relating to themselves and other people.
Multi-Dimensional Family (MDFT)
Multi-Dimensional Family (MDFT) is a family-based treatment developed for adolescents with substance abuse and behavior problems. MDFT evolved over the past 17 years within a National Institute on Drug Abuse-funded research program designed to develop and evaluate family-based drug abuse treatment for adolescents.
Psychological Assessment is a process of testing that uses a combination of techniques to help arrive at some hypotheses about a person and their behavior, personality and capabilities. Psychologists are the only profession that is expertly trained to perform and interpret psychological tests.
Medication Management Therapy is the monitoring of medications that a person takes to confirm that he or she is complying with a medication regimen, while also ensuring the person is avoiding potentially dangerous drug interactions and other complications. Medical doctors including Psychiatrists and APRN’s are certified to prescribe and manage medications to treat mental health symptoms.
Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)
Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) – often described as the “gold standard” for autism treatment based on behaviorist theories which, simply put, state that “correct” behaviors can be taught through a system of rewards and withholding of rewards.
Short-Term Trauma Models
Cognitive Processing Therapy
This treatment program combines cognitive therapy and exposure therapy. The cognitive component works to teach clients to identify and modify distorted thoughts. The exposure component consists of writing a trauma narrative and reading it repeatedly.
In this technique, the therapist counts out loud to 100 while the client focuses on their trauma. Afterwards, the trauma is discussed and worked through. This method works by linking the trauma to the security provided by the therapist’s voice.
Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT)
Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT) is based on the idea that some clients react abnormally to emotional stimulation and have a hard time returning from peak arousal to baseline. The goal of DBT is to teach methods to evaluate emotions, thus reducing life‐threatening behaviors.
Guided imagery is a self‐directed relaxation tool that helps the survivor of a traumatic event regain control by reducing their anxiety and anger. It helps survivors confront traumatic memories using indirect symbolism and metaphors, and works to naturally elevate serotonin‐like neuro‐hormone levels
Stress Inoculation Therapy
Stress inoculation therapy is aimed at helping clients develop coping skills for stress management. Clients are encouraged to implement skills such as deep breathing, role‐playing, and modeling, when confronting related fears.
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR)
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is a form of psychotherapy that emphasizes the role of distressing memories particularly in post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The therapy uses an eight-phase approach that includes having a person recall distressing images while receiving one of several types of bilateral sensory input, such as side to side eye movements. EMDR was originally developed to treat adults with PTSD; however, it is also used to treat trauma and PTSD in children and adolescents.
Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT)
Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) is a conjoint child and parent psychotherapy approach for children and adolescents who are experiencing significant emotional and behavioral difficulties related to traumatic life events.
Attachment Self-Regulation and Competency (ARC)
Attachment Self-Regulation and Competency (ARC) is a framework for intervention with youth and families who have experienced multiple and/or prolonged traumatic stress. ARC identifies three core domains that are frequently impacted among traumatized youth, and which are relevant to future resiliency. ARC is designed for youth from early childhood to adolescence and their caregivers or caregiving systems.